AskDefine | Define camel

Dictionary Definition

camel n : cud-chewing mammal used as a draft or saddle animal in desert regions

User Contributed Dictionary



etyl ang, from etyl la camelus, from etyl grc sc=polytonic, from ; compare Arabic sc=Arab) and Hebrew sc=Hebr.


  • /'kæməl/


  1. A beast of burden, much used in desert areas, of the genus camelus.
  2. A light brownish color, tan.
  3. Loaded vessels lashed tightly, one on each side of a another vessel, and then emptied to reduce the draught of the ship in the middle.


beast of burden

Tocharian B


  1. birth

Extensive Definition

Camels are even-toed ungulates within the genus Camelus. The dromedary, one-humped or Arabian camel has a single hump, and the Bactrian camel has two humps. They are native to the dry desert areas of western Asia, and central and east Asia, respectively.
The average life expectancy of a camel is forty to fifty years. The term camel is also used more broadly to describe any of the six camel-like creatures in the family Camelidae: the two true camels, and the four South American camelids, the llama, alpaca, guanaco, and vicuña.
A fully-grown adult camel stands at the shoulder and at the hump. The hump rises about thirty inches out of its body. Camels can run up to in short bursts and sustain speeds of up to . Fossil evidence indicates that the ancestors of modern camels evolved in North America during the Palaeogene period, and later spread to Asia. Humans first domesticated camels between 3,500–3,000 years ago. The dromedary and the Bactrian camel are both still used for milk, meat, and as beasts of burden—the dromedary in western Asia, and the Bactrian camel further to the north and east in central Asia.

Distribution and numbers

The almost 14 million dromedaries alive today are domesticated animals (mostly living in Somalia, Sudan, Mauritania and nearby countries).
The Bactrian camel is now reduced to an estimated 1.4 million animals, mostly domesticated. It is thought that there are about 1000 wild Bactrian camels in the Gobi Desert in China and Mongolia.
There is a substantial feral population of dromedaries estimated at up to 700,000 in central parts of Australia, descended from individuals introduced as transport animals in the 19th century and early 20th century. This population is growing at approximately 11% per year. The government of South Australia has decided to cull the animals using aerial marksmen, because the camels use too much of the limited resources needed by sheep farmers. For more information, see Australian feral camel.
A small population of introduced camels, dromedaries and Bactrians, survived in the Southwest United States until the 1900s. These animals, imported from Turkey, were part of the US Camel Corps experiment and used as draft animals in mines and escaped or were released after the project was terminated. A descendant of one of these was seen by a backpacker in Los Padres National Forest in 1972. Twenty-three Bactrian camels were brought to Canada during the Cariboo Gold Rush.


The karyotypes of different camelid species have been studied earlier by many groups , but no agreement on chromosome nomenclature of camelids has been reached. The most recent study used flow-sorted camel chromosomes building undoubtedly the camel's karyotype (2n=74) that consists of one metacentric, three submetacentric and 32 acrocentric autosomes. The Y is a small metacentric chromosome, while the X is a large metacentric chromosome. . According to molecular data, the New World and Old World camelids diverged 11 MYA. In spite of this, these species turned out to be conserved sufficiently to hybridize and produce live offspring(cama). The dromedary-guanaco inter-specific hybrid provided the ideal platform to compare the karyotypes of Old World and New World camels.
The cama is a camel/llama hybrid bred by scientists who wanted to see how closely related the parent species were. The dromedary is six times the weight of a llama, hence artificial insemination was required to impregnate the llama female (llama male to dromedary female attempts have proven unsuccessful). Though born even smaller than a llama cria, the cama had the short ears and long tail of a camel, no hump and llama-like cloven hooves rather than the dromedary-like pads. At four years old, the cama became sexually mature and attracted to llama and guanaco females. A second cama (female) has since been produced using artificial insemination. Because camels and llamas both have 74 chromosomes, scientists hope that the cama will be fertile. If so, there is potential for increasing size, meat/wool yield and pack/draft ability in South American camels. The cama apparently inherited the poor temperament of both parents as well as demonstrating the relatedness of the New World and Old World camelids.
Camels do not store water in their humps as is commonly believed; they are actually a reservoir of fatty tissue. When this tissue is metabolized, it acts as a source of energy, and would yield more than 1 g of water for each 1 g of fat converted through reaction with oxygen from air. This process of fat metabolization generates a net loss of water through respiration for the oxygen required to convert the fat.
Their ability to withstand long periods without water is due to a series of physiological adaptations. Their red blood cells have an oval shape, unlike those of other mammals, which are circular. This is to facilitate their flow in a dehydrated state. These cells are also more stable in order to withstand high osmotic variation without rupturing when drinking large amounts of water ( to in one drink).
Camels are able to withstand changes in body temperature and water content that would kill most other animals. Their temperature ranges from at night up to during the day, and only above this threshold will they begin to sweat. The upper body temperature range is often not reached during the day in milder climatic conditions, and therefore, the camel may not sweat at all during the day. Evaporation of their sweat takes place at the skin level, not at the surface of their coat, thereby being very efficient at cooling the body compared to the amount of water lost through sweating. This ability to fluctuate body temperature and the efficiency of their sweating allows them to preserve about five litres of water a day.
A feature of their nostrils is that a large amount of water vapor in their exhalations is trapped and returned to their body fluids, thereby reducing the amount of water lost through respiration.
They can withstand at least 20-25% weight loss due to sweating (most mammals can only withstand about 3-4% dehydration before cardiac failure results from the thickened blood.) A camel's blood remains hydrated, even though the body fluids are lost, until this 25% limit is reached.
Camels eating green herbage can ingest sufficient moisture in milder conditions to maintain their body's hydrated state without the need for drinking.
A camel's thick coat reflects sunlight. A shorn camel has to sweat 50% more to avoid overheating. It also insulates them from the intense heat that radiates from the desert sand. Their long legs help by keeping them further from the hot ground. Camels have been known to swim.
Their mouth is very sturdy, able to chew thorny desert plants. Long eyelashes and ear hairs, together with sealable nostrils, form a barrier against sand. Their gait and their widened feet help them move without sinking into the sand.
The kidneys and intestines of a camel are very efficient at retaining water. Urine comes out as a thick syrup, and their feces are so dry that they can fuel fires.
All camelids have an unusual immune system. In other species, the Y-shaped antibody molecules consist of two heavy (or long) chains along the length of the Y, and two light (or short) chains at each tip of the Y. In the camel, the antibody molecules have only two heavy chains, which makes them smaller and more durable. These antibodies, which were discovered in 1993, probably developed 50 million years ago, after camelids split from ruminants and pigs, according to biochemist Serge Muyldermans.
The camel is the only animal to have replaced the wheel (mainly in North Africa) where the wheel had already been established. The camel did not lose that distinction until the wheel was combined with the internal combustion engine in the 20th century.

Camel farming

Military uses of camels

Attempts have been made to employ camels as cavalry and dragoon mounts and as freight animals in lieu of horses and mules. In some places, such as Australia, some of the camels have become feral and are considered to be dangerous to travelers on camels. The camels were mostly used in combat because of their ability to scare off horses in close ranges, a quality famously employed by the Achaemenid Persians when fighting Lydia, although the Persians usually used camels as baggage trains for arrows and equipment. The horses detest the smell of camels, and therefore, the horses in the vicinity become harder to control. The United States Army had an active camel corps stationed in California in the 19th century, and the brick stables may still be seen at the Benicia Arsenal in Benicia, California, now converted to artists' and artisans' studio spaces. Camels have been used in wars throughout Africa, and also in the East Roman Empire as auxiliary forces known as Dromedarii recruited in desert provinces.



Camel milk is a staple food of desert nomad tribes and is richer in fat and protein than cow milk. Camel milk cannot be made into butter in the traditional churning method. It can be made if it is soured first, churned, and then a clarifying agent is added, or if it is churned at 24–25 °C (75–76 °F), but times will vary greatly in achieving results. The milk can readily be made into yogurt. Butter or yogurt made from camel milk is said to have a very faint greenish tinge. Camel milk is said to have many healthful properties and is used as a medicinal product in India; Bedouin tribes believe that camel milk has great curative powers if the camel's diet consists of certain plants. In Ethiopia, the milk is considered an aphrodisiac.
Camel milk, until recently, was impossible to make into traditional cheese since rennet was unable to coagulate the milk proteins to allow the collection of curds. Under the commission of the FAO, Professor J.P. Ramet of the École Nationale Supérieure d'Agronomie et des Industries Alimentaires (ENSAIA) was able to produce curdling by the addition of calcium phosphate and vegetable rennet. The cheese produced from this process has low levels of cholesterol and lactose. The sale of camel cheese is limited due to the low yield of cheese from milk and the uncertainty of pasteurization levels for camel milk which makes adherence to dairy import regulations difficult.


A camel carcass can provide a substantial amount of meat. The male dromedary carcass can weigh or more, while the carcass of a male Bactrian can weigh up to . The carcass of a female camel weighs less than the male, ranging between 250 and 350 kg (550–770 lb), but can provide a substantial amount of meat. The brisket, ribs and loin are among the preferred parts, but the hump is considered a delicacy and is most favored. It is reported that camel meat tastes like coarse beef, but older camels can prove to be tough and less flavorful.
Camel meat has been eaten for centuries. It has been recorded by ancient Greek writers as an available dish in ancient Persia at banquets, usually roasted whole. The ancient Roman emperor Heliogabalus enjoyed camel's heel. Camel meat is still eaten in certain regions including Somalia, where it is called Hilib geyl, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Libya, Sudan, Kazakhstan and other arid regions where alternative forms of protein may be limited or where camel meat has had a long cultural history. In the Middle East, camel meat is the rarest and most prized source of pastırma. Not just the meat, but also blood is a consumable item as is the case in northern Kenya, where camel blood is a source of iron, vitamin D, salts and minerals.

Cultural prohibitions on consuming camel products

The consumption of camel blood is proscribed by Muslim beliefs, as blood products are not halal. According to Jewish tradition, camel meat and milk are not kosher. Camels possess only one of the two Kosher criteria; although they chew their cuds, they do not possess split hooves. (See: Taboo food and drink)

Health issues

A 2005 report issued jointly by the Saudi Ministry of Health and the United States Center for Disease Control details cases of human bubonic plague resulting from the ingestion of raw camel liver.


External links

camel in Afrikaans: Kameel
camel in Arabic: جمل
camel in Bengali: উট
camel in Min Nan: Lo̍k-tô
camel in Catalan: Camell
camel in Czech: Velbloud
camel in Welsh: Camel
camel in German: Altweltkamele
camel in Estonian: Kaamel
camel in Modern Greek (1453-): Καμήλα
camel in Spanish: Camelus
camel in Esperanto: Kamelo
camel in Basque: Camelus
camel in Persian: شتر
camel in French: Camelus
camel in Galician: Camelo
camel in Hakka Chinese: Lo̍k-thò
camel in Korean: 낙타
camel in Croatian: Deve starog svijeta
camel in Ido: Kamelo
camel in Indonesian: Unta
camel in Icelandic: Kameldýr
camel in Italian: Cammello
camel in Hebrew: גמל
camel in Georgian: აქლემი
camel in Haitian: Chamo
camel in Latin: Camelus
camel in Hungarian: Teve
camel in Malay (macrolanguage): Unta
camel in Dutch: Kamelen
camel in Japanese: ラクダ
camel in Norwegian: Kameler
camel in Occitan (post 1500): Camèl
camel in Uighur: Töge
camel in Uzbek: Tuya
camel in Polish: Wielbłąd
camel in Portuguese: Camelus
camel in Romanian: Cămilă
camel in Quechua: Kamillu
camel in Russian: Верблюды
camel in Simple English: Camel
camel in Slovenian: Velblod
camel in Serbian: Камила
camel in Finnish: Kamelit
camel in Swedish: Camelus
camel in Tamil: ஒட்டகம்
camel in Thai: อูฐ
camel in Vietnamese: Lạc đà
camel in Turkish: Deve
camel in Ukrainian: Верблюд
camel in Chinese: 骆驼

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

Cape elk, Siberian husky, Virginia deer, antelope, ass, beast of burden, buck, camelopard, caribou, deer, deerlet, doe, draft animal, dromedary, eland, elephant, elk, fallow deer, fawn, gazelle, giraffe, gnu, hart, hartebeest, hind, horse, husky, kaama, llama, malamute, moose, mule, mule deer, musk deer, okapi, ox, pack horse, red deer, reindeer, roe, roe deer, roebuck, sledge dog, springbok, stag, sumpter, sumpter horse, sumpter mule, wildebeest
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